A. Introduction: What is Real Time ?Patrick Le Dû, IPN Lyon (2 x 45 minutes)
The lectures start with a definition of Real Time , its terminology and its applications in the different technical worlds from fundamental physiscs to the day to days life illustrated by typical examples.
Moving to the experimental Physics world, a short description of the basic fundamental detectors for vertexing, tracking, and calorimetry will be giving with their main electronics and read out features. Then, a little history of the trigger and data acquisition evolution over the last 30 years will be presented with simple examples (SPS-NA3, LEP-OPAL,TEVATRON CDF/DO) followed by some conceptual architectures for the future next linear colliders (ILC/CLIC).
In conclusion, it will be shown that modern state of that art read out architectures,tools and technologies could be applied to other fields from security scanners ,severe nuclear accident monitoring instrumentation to medical imaging systems like Positron Emission Tomography and particle therapy.
B. Introduction to readout, trigger and control architecture
Martin L. Purschke (2 x 45 minutes)
– From resistor to high energy physics experiment -
The world of frontier physics experiments challenges system design in all its aspects from the definition of the architecture, to data structures and general technology choices, all the way down to the the electronics components. The control and readout are based on very large and complex systems composed of many different technologies which are developed in different environments and cultures. Ultimately, they must meet in a well-integrated system for operational efficiency, and allow maintenance and upgrades over a very long period of time, often without the original designers. This translates into a number of considerations and guidelines which should be taken into account from day one in the development of each of the sub-components.
The first part of the lecture gives an introduction to the design of the general architecture of readout, trigger and control systems of the physics experiments, and outlines the definition and functionality of each of the sub-systems. Particular emphasis is put on the functional and environmental criteria which drives the technological choices and the development strategy in view of the long life cycle of the experiments and the many different phases.
In the second part, we will have a look at a number of actual implementations, and examine different choices in electronics, data structures, compression technologies, communication protocols, and how these areas have evolved of the last decade.
C. Waveform digitising and signal processingStefan Ritt, PSI (2 x 45 minutes)
Data acquisition in nuclear and particle physics requires the precise measurement of signal amplitudes and time from detectors. This lecture first gives an overview of traditional methods using signal shaping, various discriminators and analog-to-digital converters (ADC) and time-to-digital converters (TDC). It then moves over to high speed waveform digitizing, a field which recently made tremendous progress due to faster ADCs and so-called switched-capacitor array integrated circuits. These novel devices allow the direct digitisation of detectors with several gigasamples per second (GSPS) and resolutions up to 12 bits. The lecture introduces various signal processing methods to extract the signal amplitude and time from detector signals in the presence of noise.
D. FPGAJin-Yuan Wu, FNAL (2 x 45 minutes)
This course will cover several advanced topics on FPGA applications including implementing high precision TDC, using TDC for waveform digitization, charge measurement, timing reference distribution systems and trigger systems.
This course will be example oriented. An actual digitization design will be investigated. Various useful blocks including TDC, zero suppression, data buffer strategy, serial data transfer will become available for the future projects of the students.
The course will also cover several practical design considerations in PCB with FPGA.
Topics of FPGA based computations will also be briefly discussed as an introduction for students with potential tasks.
E. DAQ systemsNiko Neufeld and Rainer Schwemmer, CERN (2 x 45 minutes)
Technologies for DAQ systems
Buses (VME, USB, PCIe)
- Networks (emphasis on Ethernet)
- Online software filtering and data compression (this includes a bit on GPGPUs)
- Online storage
Challenges in High-rate experiments
Examples for large systems will be taken from the Belle-2 DAQ and LHCb
F. Standards on readout electronicsZhen An Liu, IHEP (1 x 45 minutes)
This course will cover several standards used in designing Front-End and Back-End readout electronics for the frontier physics experiments, including signal levels and data transmission buses with brief introduction to their evolution.Concentration will be on the most recent used signal levels and modular standards like ATCA/MTCA and some future prospection will also be given.